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2022-10-05 GULFSTREAM AEROSPACE CORPORATION: Amendment 39-22043; Docket No. FAA-2022-0511; Project Identifier AD-2022-00397-T.
(a) EFFECTIVE DATE

    This airworthiness directive (AD) is effective May 9, 2022.

(b) AFFECTED ADS

    This AD replaces AD 2020-05-12, Amendment 39-19860 (85 FR 14562, March
    13, 2020) (AD 2020-05-12).

(c) APPLICABILITY

    This AD applies  to  all  Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Model GVII-
    G500 and GVII-G600 airplanes, certificated in any category.

(d) SUBJECT

    Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 27, Flight controls.

(e) UNSAFE CONDITION

    This AD was prompted by reports of two landing incidents in which  the
    alpha limiter engaged in the landing flare in unstable air,  resulting
    in high rate of descent landings and damage to the airplanes. The  FAA
    is issuing this AD  to address inappropriate alpha  limiter engagement
    during the landing flare, which can limit pilot pitch authority during
    a critical phase of flight near the ground, and result in a high  rate
    of descent  landing with  possible consequent  loss of  control of the
    airplane on landing.

(f) COMPLIANCE

    Comply with this AD within the compliance times specified,  unless al-
    ready done.

(g) RETAINED REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTAIN AFM REVISIONS FOR GVII-G500, WITH RE
    -VISED PARAGRAPH REFERENCES

    This introductory text to paragraph (g)  restates  the requirements of
    the introductory text to paragraph (g) of AD 2020-05-12,  with revised
    paragraph references.  For Model GVII-G500 airplanes:  Within  5  days
    after March 13, 2020 (the effective date of AD 2020-05-12), revise the
    existing airplane flight manual (AFM) for your airplane to incorporate
    the information specified in paragraphs (g)(1) through (4) of this AD.

(1) This paragraph (g)(1) restates the information  in paragraph (g)(3) of
    AD 2020-05-12,  with  no  changes.  Section 01-27-10,  "Normal Control
    Laws," of Chapter 01, "LIMITATIONS,"  of the Gulfstream GVII-G500 Air-
    plane Flight Manual, GAC-AC-GVII-G500-OPS-0001 Revision 5, dated March
    3, 2020.

(2) This paragraph (g)(2) restates the information  in paragraph (g)(4) of
    AD 2020-05-12, with no changes. Step 5. of Section 01-34-40,  "Takeoff
    and Landing Data (TOLD)," of Chapter 01,  "LIMITATIONS,"  of the Gulf-
    stream GVII-G500  Airplane  Flight Manual,  GAC-AC-GVII-G500-OPS-0001,
    Revision 5, dated March 3, 2020.

(3) This paragraph (g)(3) restates the information  in paragraph (g)(6) of
    AD 2020-05-12, with no changes. Step 11. "Landing,"  of Section 03-12-
    10, "Zero Flaps or Partial Flaps Landings,"  of Chapter 03,  "ABNORMAL
    PROCEDURES," of the Gulfstream GVII-G500 Airplane Flight Manual,  GAC-
    AC-GVII-G500-OPS-0001, Revision 5, dated March 3, 2020.

(4) This paragraph (g)(4) restates the information  in paragraph (g)(7) of
    AD 2020-05-12, with no changes. Step 8.  "Final Approach Fix," of Sec-
    tion 04-08-40,  "One Engine Inoperative Landing Procedure," of Chapter
    04, "EMERGENCY PROCEDURES" of the Gulfstream GVII-G500 Airplane Flight
    Manual, GAC-AC-GVII-G500-OPS-0001, Revision 5, dated March 3, 2020.

(h) RETAINED REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTAIN AFM REVISIONS FOR GVII-G600, WITH RE
    -VISED PARAGRAPH REFERENCES

    This introductory text to paragraph (h)  restates  the requirements of
    the introductory text to paragraph (h) of AD 2020-05-12,  with revised
    paragraph references.  For Model GVII-G600 airplanes:  Within  5  days
    after March 13, 2020 (the effective date of AD 2020-05-12), revise the
    existing AFM for your airplane  to incorporate  the information speci-
    fied in paragraphs (h)(1) through (4) of this AD.

(1) This paragraph (h)(1) restates the information  in paragraph (h)(3) of
    AD 2020-05-12,  with  no  changes.  Section 01-27-10,  "Normal Control
    Laws," of Chapter 01, "LIMITATIONS,"  of the Gulfstream GVII-G600 Air-
    plane Flight Manual, GAC-AC-GVII-G600-OPS-0001 Revision 3, dated March
    3, 2020.

(2) This paragraph (h)(2) restates the information  in paragraph (h)(4) of
    AD 2020-05-12,  with no changes.  Steps 3. and 4. of Section 01-34-40,
    "Takeoff and Landing Data (TOLD),"  of  Chapter 01,  "LIMITATIONS," of
    the Gulfstream GVII-G600 Airplane Flight Manual, GAC-AC-GVII-G600-OPS-
    0001, Revision 3, dated March 3, 2020.

(3) This paragraph (h)(3) restates the information  in paragraph (h)(6) of
    AD 2020-05-12, with no changes. Step 11., "Landing," of Section 03-12-
    10, "Zero Flaps or Partial Flaps Landings,"  of Chapter 03,  "ABNORMAL
    PROCEDURES," of the Gulfstream GVII-G600  Airplane Flight Manual, GAC-
    AC-GVII-G600-OPS-0001, Revision 3, dated March 3, 2020.

(4) This paragraph (h)(4) restates the information  in paragraph (h)(7) of
    AD 2020-05-12, with no changes. Step 8., "Final Approach Fix," of Sec-
    tion 04-08-40,  "One Engine Inoperative Landing Procedure," of Chapter
    04, "EMERGENCY PROCEDURES" of the Gulfstream GVII-G600 Airplane Flight
    Manual, GAC-AC-GVII-G600-OPS-0001, Revision 3, dated March 3, 2020.

(i) NEW REQUIREMENTS: AFM REVISION FOR GVII-G500

    For Model GVII-G500 airplanes:  Within 3 days after the effective date
    of this AD,  revise the existing AFM for your airplane as specified in
    paragraphs (i)(1) through (6) of this AD.

(1) Replace the information in "Wind Conditions" of Section 01-02-10: "Run
    -way, Slope, and Wind Conditions," of Chapter 01,  "LIMITATIONS," with
    the information in figure 1 to paragraph (i)(1) of this AD.
    ______________________________________________________________________
    FIGURE 1 TO PARAGRAPH (I)(1)  SECTION 01-02-10:RUNWAY, SLOPE AND WIND
                                   CONDITIONS                             
    ______________________________________________________________________
    01-02-10: Runway, Slope, and Wind Conditions
    ______________________________________________________________________
    3. Wind Conditions

      a. The maximum wind speed for landing (including gusts) is 15 knots.
      b. The maximum wind gust for landing is 5 knots.
      c. Maximum tailwind component approved for takeoff and landing: 10
         knots
      d. When operating in a flight control law mode other than normal
         (i.e., alternate, direct, or backup), maximum crosswind component
         for landing: 10 knots
      e. Maximum tailwind component for landing with flaps 10 or less is
         zero knots.
    ______________________________________________________________________

(2) Replace  the  information  in   "Day and Night,  Visual and Instrument
    Flight Rules" of Section 01-03-10:  "Types of Airplane Operations Per-
    mitted," of Chapter 01, "LIMITATIONS,"  with the information in figure
    2 to paragraph (i)(2) of this AD.
    ______________________________________________________________________
    FIGURE 2 TO PARAGRAPH (I)(2)  SECTION 01-03-10: TYPES OF AIRPLANE OP-
                                   ERATIONS PERMITTED                     
    ______________________________________________________________________
    01-03-10: Types of Airplane Operations Permitted
    ______________________________________________________________________
    2. Day and Night, Visual and Instrument Flight Rules

      a. All approaches must be stabilized by 1000 ft AGL including visual
         maneuvers.
      b. Vertical  guidance  from an ILS or FMS-based approach is required
         for night landings.
    ______________________________________________________________________

(3) Replace the information in "Approach Speed" of Section 01-03-40: "Air-
    speed Limitations," of Chapter 01, "LIMITATIONS," with the information
    in figure 3 to paragraph (i)(3) of this AD.
    ______________________________________________________________________
    FIGURE 3 TO PARAGRAPH (I)(3)  SECTION 01-03-40: AIRSPEED LIMITATIONS 
    ______________________________________________________________________
    01-03-40: Airspeed Limitations
    ______________________________________________________________________
    15. Approach Speed

      a. Approach speed additives (Flaps 39)  are  half  the  steady state
         wind plus the gust increment up  to  a  maximum  additive  of  20
         knots.
      b. Minimum approach speed  during  normal  operations  is  VREF + 10
         knots, unless otherwise specified in a non-normal procedure.
      c. Approach Speed  shall  be  maintained to the runway threshold and
         shall be used to determine landing performance  except for abnor-
         mal flap approaches.  Abnormal flap approaches  must comply  with
         the procedures in section 03-12-10: Zero Flaps  or  Partial Flaps
         Landings.
    ______________________________________________________________________

(4) To Section 01-22-10: "Autothrottle," of Chapter 01, "LIMITATIONS," add
    the information in figure 4 to paragraph (i)(4) of this AD.
    ______________________________________________________________________
        FIGURE 4 TO PARAGRAPH (I)(4)  SECTION 01-22-10: AUTOTHROTTLE     
    ______________________________________________________________________
    01-22-10: Autothrottle
    ______________________________________________________________________
    2. Use of the Autothrottle for approach and landing is required during
       normal operations.

                                     Note

      Pilot will physically guard the throttles until touchdown, and over-
      ride or disconnect  the  autothrottle  if  performance is not as ex-
      pected.
    ______________________________________________________________________

(5) Replace the "WARNING" information  preceding  "Approach / Landing Air-
    speeds" of Section 02-05-50:  "Landing," of Chapter 02, "NORMAL OPERA-
    TIONS," with the information  in figure 5 to paragraph (i)(5)  of this
    AD.
    ______________________________________________________________________
           FIGURE 5 TO PARAGRAPH (I)(5)  SECTION 02-05-50: LANDING       
    ______________________________________________________________________
    02-05-50: Landing
    ______________________________________________________________________
                                    WARNING

             EXCEPT AS REQUIRED IN AN EMERGENCY OR AS DIRECTED BY A
             NON-NORMAL PROCEDURE, MINIMUM APPROACH SPEED IS VREF
             +10. APPROACH SPEED SHALL BE MAINTAINED TO THE
             THRESHOLD AND SHALL BE USED TO DETERMINE LANDING
             DISTANCE.

    4. Approach/Landing Airspeeds ................................. Verify
    ______________________________________________________________________

(6) Replace the "Introduction" and "Examples" sections of Section 05-11-10
    "Threshold Speeds" of Chapter 05, "PERFORMANCE,"  with the information
    in figure 6 to paragraph (i)(6) of this AD.

                        ILLUSTRATION (Figure 6)

(j) NEW REQUIREMENTS: AFM REVISION FOR GVII-G600

    For Model GVII-G600 airplanes:  Within 3 days after the effective date
    of this AD,  revise the existing AFM for your airplane as specified in
    paragraphs (j)(1) through (6) of this AD.

(1) Replace the information in "Wind Conditions" of Section 01-02-10: "Run
    -way, Slope, and Wind Conditions," of Chapter 01,  "LIMITATIONS," with
    the information in figure 7 to paragraph (j)(1) of this AD.
    ______________________________________________________________________
    FIGURE 7 TO PARAGRAPH (J)(1)  SECTION 01-02-10:RUNWAY, SLOPE AND WIND
                                   CONDITIONS                             
    ______________________________________________________________________
    01-02-10: Runway, Slope, and Wind Conditions
    ______________________________________________________________________
    3. Wind Conditions

      a. The maximum wind speed for landing (including gusts) is 15 knots.
      b. The maximum wind gust for landing is 5 knots.
      c. Maximum tailwind component  approved for takeoff and landing:  10
         knots
      d. When operating  in  a  flight control law mode  other than normal
         (i.e., alternate, direct, or backup), maximum crosswind component
         for landing: 10 knots
      e. Maximum tailwind component  for landing with flaps 10 or less is
         zero knots.
    ______________________________________________________________________

(2) Replace the information in  "Day  and  Night,  Visual  and  Instrument
    Flight Rules" of Section 01-03-10:  "Types of Airplane Operations Per-
    mitted," of Chapter 01, "LIMITATIONS,"  with the information in figure
    8 to paragraph (j)(2) of this AD.
    ______________________________________________________________________
    FIGURE 8 TO PARAGRAPH (J)(2)  SECTION 01-03-10: TYPES OF AIRPLANE OP-
                                   ERATIONS PERMITTED                     
    ______________________________________________________________________
    01-03-10: Types of Airplane Operations Permitted
    ______________________________________________________________________
    2. Day and Night, Visual and Instrument Flight Rules

      a. All approaches must be stabilized by 1000 ft AGL, including visu-
         al maneuvers.
      b. Vertical guidance from an ILS or FMS - based approach is required
         for night landings.
    ______________________________________________________________________

(3) Replace the information in "Approach Speed" of Section 01-03-40: "Air-
    speed Limitations," of Chapter 01, "LIMITATIONS," with the information
    in figure 9 to paragraph (j)(3) of this AD.
    ______________________________________________________________________
    FIGURE 9 TO PARAGRAPH (J)(3)  SECTION 01-03-40: AIRSPEED LIMITATIONS 
    ______________________________________________________________________
    01-03-40: Airspeed Limitations
    ______________________________________________________________________
    15. Approach Speed

      a. Approach speed additives (Flaps 39)  are  half  the  steady state
         wind plus the  gust  increment  up  to  a  maximum additive of 20
         knots.
      b. Minimum approach speed  during  normal  operations  is  VREF + 10
         knots, unless otherwise specified in a non-normal procedure.
      c. Approach Speed  shall  be  maintained to the runway threshold and
         shall be used to determine landing performance  except for abnor-
         mal flap approaches.  Abnormal flap approaches  must  comply with
         the procedures  in section 03-12-10:  Zero Flaps or Partial Flaps
         Landings.
    ______________________________________________________________________

(4) To Section 01-22-10: "Autothrottle," of Chapter 01, "LIMITATIONS," add
    the information in figure 10 to paragraph (j)(4) of this AD.

    ______________________________________________________________________
        FIGURE 10 TO PARAGRAPH (J)(4)  SECTION 01-22-10: AUTOTHROTTLE    
    ______________________________________________________________________
    01-22-10: Autothrottle
    ______________________________________________________________________
    2. Use of the Autothrottle for approach and landing is required during
       normal operations.

                                     Note

    Pilot will physically guard the throttles until touchdown and override
    or disconnect the autothrottle if performance is not as expected.
    ______________________________________________________________________


(5) Replace the "WARNING" information  preceding  "Approach / Landing Air-
    speeds" of Section 02-05-50: "Landing,"  of Chapter 02, "NORMAL OPERA-
    TIONS,"  with the information in figure 11 to paragraph (j)(5) of this
    AD.
    ______________________________________________________________________
          FIGURE 11 TO PARAGRAPH (J)(5)  SECTION 02-05-50: LANDING       
    ______________________________________________________________________
    02-05-50: Landing
    ______________________________________________________________________
                                    WARNING

             EXCEPT AS REQUIRED IN AN EMERGENCY OR AS DIRECTED BY A
             NON-NORMAL PROCEDURE, MINIMUM APPROACH SPEED IS VREF
             +10. APPROACH SPEED SHALL BE MAINTAINED TO THE
             THRESHOLD AND SHALL BE USED TO DETERMINE LANDING
             DISTANCE.

    4. Approach/Landing Airspeeds ................................. Verify
    ______________________________________________________________________

(6) Replace the "Introduction" and "Examples" sections of Section 05-11-10
    "Threshold Speeds" of Chapter 05, "PERFORMANCE,"  with the information
    in figure 12 to paragraph (j)(6) of this AD.

                        ILLUSTRATION (Figure 12)

(k) ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF COMPLIANCE (AMOCS)

(1) The  Manager,  Atlanta ACO Branch,  FAA,  has the authority to approve
    AMOCs for this AD, if requested  using the procedures found in 14  CFR
    39.19. In  accordance with  14 CFR  39.19, send  your request  to your
    principal  inspector  or  responsible  Flight  Standards  Office,   as
    appropriate. If  sending information  directly to  the manager  of the
    certification  office,  send  it  to  the  attention  of  the   person
    identified in paragraph (l) of this AD.

(2) Before using any approved AMOC,  notify your appropriate principal in-
    spector,  or  lacking  a  principal  inspector,  the  manager  of  the
    responsible Flight Standards Office.

(3) AMOC 7A0-22-06968,  dated April 29, 2022,  was approved as an AMOC for
    the requirements for AD 2020-05-12, and is approved as an AMOC for the
    requirements of paragraphs (g) and (h)  of this AD.  Other  AMOCs pre-
    viously issued  for the requirements of AD 2020-05-12 are not approved
    as an AMOC for the requirements of this AD.

(l) RELATED INFORMATION

    For more information about this AD,  contact  Sanford Proveaux,  Aero-
    space Engineer,  Certificate Management  and Safety Oversight Section,
    FAA, Atlanta ACO Branch, 1701 Columbia Avenue, College Park, GA 30337;
    phone: 404-474-5566; email: Sanford.Proveaux@faa.gov.

(m) MATERIAL INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

(1) The Director of the Federal Register  approved  the  incorporation  by
    reference (IBR) of  the service information  listed in this  paragraph
    under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51.

(2) You must use this service information as applicable  to do the actions
    required by this AD, unless this AD specifies otherwise.

(3) The following service information was approved  for  IBR  on March 13,
    2020 (85 FR 14562, March 13, 2020).

(i) Gulfstream GVII-G500 Airplane Flight Manual, GAC-AC-GVII-G500-OPS-0001
    Revision 5, dated March 3, 2020.

(A) Section 01-27-10, "Normal Control Laws," of Chapter 01, "LIMITATIONS."

(B) Step 8., "Final Approach Fix," of Section 04-08-40,  "One Engine Inop-
    erative Landing Procedure," of Chapter 04, "EMERGENCY PROCEDURES."

(C) Step 11., "Landing," of Section 03-12-10, "Zero Flaps or Partial Flaps
    Landings," of Chapter 03, "ABNORMAL PROCEDURES."

(D) Step 15.,  "Approach Speed,"  of  Section 01-03-40,  "Airspeed Limita-
    tions," of Chapter 01, "LIMITATIONS."

(ii) Gulfstream GVII-G600  Airplane  Flight  Manual, GAC-AC-GVII-G600-OPS-
     0001, Revision 3, dated March 3, 2020.

(A) Section 01-27-10, "Normal Control Laws," of Chapter 01, "LIMITATIONS."

(B) Steps 3. and 4. of Section 01-34-40, "Takeoff and Landing Data (TOLD)"
    of Chapter 01, "LIMITATIONS."

(C) Step 8., "Final Approach Fix," of Section 04-08-40,  "One Engine Inop-
    erative Landing Procedure," of Chapter 04, "EMERGENCY PROCEDURES."

(D) Step 11., "Landing," of Section 03-12-10, "Zero Flaps or Partial Flaps
    Landings," of Chapter 03, "ABNORMAL PROCEDURES."

(4) For service information identified in this AD, contact Gulfstream Aero
    -space  Corporation,  Technical  Publications  Dept.,   P.O. Box 2206,
    Savannah, GA 31402-2206;  telephone 800-810-4853; fax 912-965-3520; e-
    mail pubs@gulfstream.com; internet http://www.gulfstream.com/customer-
    support.

(5) You may view this service information at the FAA,  Airworthiness Prod-
    ucts Section,  Operational  Safety  Branch,  2200 South 216th St., Des
    Moines, WA.  For information  on the availability  of this material at
    the FAA, call 206-231-3195.

(6) You may view  this service information  that is incorporated by refer-
    ence at the National Archives and Records Administration  (NARA).  For
    information on the availability of this material  at  NARA,  email fr.
    inspection@nara.gov or go to https://www.archives.gov/federal-register
    /cfr/ibr-locations.html.

Issued on May 2, 2022.  Ross Landes, Deputy Director for Regulatory Opera-
tions, Compliance & Airworthiness Division, Aircraft Certification Service

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:  Sanford  Proveaux,  Aerospace  Engineer,
Certificate Management and  Safety  Oversight  Section,  FAA,  Atlanta ACO
Branch, 1701 Columbia Avenue, College Park, GA 30337; phone: 404-474-5566;
email: Sanford.Proveaux@faa.gov.
PREAMBLE 

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Federal Aviation Administration

14 CFR Part 39

[Docket No. FAA-2022-0511; Project Identifier AD-2022-00397-T;
Amendment 39-22043; AD 2022-10-05]
RIN 2120-AA64

Airworthiness Directives
; Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Airplanes

AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT.

ACTION: Final rule; request for comments.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: The FAA is superseding Airworthiness Directive (AD) 2020-05-
12, which applied to all Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Model GVII-
G500 and GVII-G600 airplanes. AD 2020-05-12 required revising the
existing airplane flight manual (AFM) to incorporate revised
limitations and procedures. This AD was prompted by reports of two
landing incidents in which the alpha limiter engaged in the landing
flare in unstable air, resulting in high rate of descent landings and
damage to the airplanes. This AD retains certain requirements, and also
adds and replaces certain AFM sections with more restrictive
limitations and procedures. The FAA is issuing this AD to address the
unsafe condition on these products.

DATES: This AD is effective May 9, 2022.
The Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation by
reference of certain publications listed in this AD as of March 13,
2020 (85 FR 14562, March 13, 2020).
The FAA must receive comments on this AD by June 23, 2022.

ADDRESSES: You may send comments, using the procedures found in 14 CFR
11.43 and 11.45, by any of the following methods:
Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to https://www.regulations.gov. Follow the instructions
for submitting comments.
Fax: 202-493-2251.
Mail: U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket
Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New
Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, DC 20590.
Hand Delivery: Deliver to Mail address above between 9
a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays.
For service information identified in this final rule, contact
Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Technical Publications Dept., P.O.
Box 2206, Savannah, GA 31402-2206; telephone 800-810-4853; fax 912-965-
3520; email pubs@gulfstream.com; internet http://www.gulfstream.com/
customer-support. You may view this service information at the FAA,
Airworthiness Products Section, Operational Safety Branch, 2200 South
216th St., Des Moines, WA. For information on the availability of this
material at the FAA, call 206-231-3195. It is also available at https://www.
regulations.gov by searching for and locating Docket No. FAA-2022-0511.

Examining the AD Docket

You may examine the AD docket at https://www.regulations.gov by
searching for and locating Docket No. FAA-2022-0511; or in person at
Docket Operations between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday,
except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this
final rule, any comments received, and other information. The street
address for the Docket Operations is listed above.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sanford Proveaux, Aerospace Engineer,
Certificate Management and Safety Oversight Section, FAA, Atlanta ACO
Branch, 1701 Columbia Avenue, College Park, GA 30337; phone: 404-474-
5566; email: Sanford.Proveaux@faa.gov.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Background

The FAA issued AD 2020-05-12, Amendment 39-19860 (85 FR 14562,
March 13, 2020) (AD 2020-05-12), for all Gulfstream Aerospace
Corporation Model GVII-G500 and GVII-G600 airplanes. AD 2020-05-12
required revising the existing AFM to limit the maximum crosswind
component for landing and increase the normal approach speeds, based on
steady-state winds and wind gusts. AD 2020-05-12 was prompted by a
report of a landing incident, which occurred on February 6, 2020, where
the alpha (angle of attack) limiter engaged during the landing flare in
unstable air, resulting in a high rate of descent landing and damage to
the airplane. The FAA issued AD 2020-05-12 to address inappropriate
alpha limiter engagement during the landing flare, which can limit
pilot pitch authority during a critical phase of flight near the
ground, and result in a high rate of descent landing with possible
consequent loss of control of the airplane on landing.

Actions Since AD 2020-05-12 Was Issued

After the FAA issued AD 2020-05-12, a second landing event occurred
on April 4, 2022. As in the first event, the alpha limiter engaged
during the landing flare in unstable air, resulting in a high rate of
descent landing and damage to the airplane. In both events, the angle
of attack (AOA) protection function (alpha limiter) of the flight
control computer (FCC) engaged and overrode the pilot pitch control
inputs which the flight control law erroneously predicted would exceed
the stall AOA. This resulted in a high rate of descent landing on the
runway. Additionally, the pilots in both events had full aft-stick
input when the aircraft contacted the runway, and the full-up pitch
control did not arrest the high rate of descent landing.
The Model GVII-G500 and GVII-G600 alpha limiter function of the FCC
is designed to prevent aerodynamic stalls and operates when airborne
and operating in normal control law. The FCC uses many inputs including
current AOA, rate of change of AOA, and pilot control stick inputs to
determine alpha limiter activation. If the FCC predicts that critical
AOA values will be exceeded, the FCC will activate the alpha limiting
function. The FCC may activate the alpha limiting function when the AOA
is not close to stall. Depending on the rate of AOA increase and pilot
stick input, the alpha limiter may command nose down elevator to
prevent a stall. It is clear from an analysis of both events that
unintended alpha limiter engagement is primarily caused by rapid,
large, and oscillating pilot control inputs near approach reference
speeds, induced by unstable atmospheric conditions and gusty winds.
The aircraft level hazard is that inappropriate alpha limiter
engagement during the landing flare, which can limit the pilot's
ability to control pitch during a critical phase of flight near the
ground, can result in a high rate of descent landing with possible
consequent loss of control of the airplane on landing. It has been
determined that the operating limitations mandated by AD 2020-05-12 are
not adequate to prevent another occurrence. For these reasons, the AFM
wind and gust operating limitations have been further restricted in
this AD.

Pilot Adherence to AFM Revisions To Mitigate the Unsafe Condition of
Unintended Alpha Limiter Engagement


These more restrictive operating limitations do not relieve a pilot
from their other regulatory obligations, including verifying
destination wind forecasts prior to departure, monitoring winds en
route, verifying that the approach briefing includes a cockpit brief of
winds and weather, and confirming that the winds are still within
acceptable limits just prior to landing. Pilots are responsible for
becoming familiar with this information when performing preflight
actions under 14 CFR part 91.103, 91.151, and 91.167. Furthermore,
these limitations can only be exceeded when the pilot is exercising
their authority under 14 CFR part 91.3.

FAA's Determination

The FAA is issuing this AD because the agency has determined the
unsafe condition described previously is likely to exist or develop in
other products of the same type design.

Related Service Information Under 1 CFR Part 51

This AD retains certain requirements of AD 2020-05-12, which
requires the following sections of Gulfstream GVII-G500 Airplane Flight
Manual, GAC-AC-GVII-G500-OPS-0001, Revision 5, dated March 3, 2020,
which the Director of the Federal Register approved for incorporation
by reference as of March 13, 2020 (85 FR 14562, March 13, 2020).
Section 01-27-10, ``Normal Control Laws,'' of Chapter 01,
``LIMITATIONS.''
Step 8., ``Final Approach Fix,'' of Section 04-08-40,
``One Engine Inoperative Landing Procedure,'' of Chapter 04,
``EMERGENCY PROCEDURES.''
Step 11., ``Landing,'' of Section 03-12-10, ``Zero Flaps
or Partial Flaps Landings,'' of Chapter 03, ``ABNORMAL PROCEDURES.''
Step 15., ``Approach Speed,'' of Section 01-03-40,
``Airspeed Limitations,'' of Chapter 01, ``LIMITATIONS.''
This AD also requires the following sections of Gulfstream GVII-
G600 Airplane Flight Manual, GAC-AC-GVII-G600-OPS-0001, Revision 3,
dated March 3, 2020, which the Director of the Federal Register
approved for incorporation by reference as of March 13, 2020 (85 FR
14562, March 13, 2020).
Section 01-27-10, ``Normal Control Laws,'' of Chapter 01,
``LIMITATIONS.''
Steps 3. and 4. of Section 01-34-40, ``Takeoff and Landing
Data (TOLD),'' of Chapter 01, ``LIMITATIONS.''
Step 8., ``Final Approach Fix,'' of Section 04-08-40,
``One Engine Inoperative Landing Procedure,'' of Chapter 04,
``EMERGENCY PROCEDURES.''
Step 11., ``Landing,'' of Section 03-12-10, ``Zero Flaps
or Partial Flaps Landings,'' of Chapter 03, ``ABNORMAL PROCEDURES.''
This service information is reasonably available because the
interested parties have access to it through their normal course of
business or by the means identified in the ADDRESSES section.

AD Requirements

This AD retains some of the AFM revisions required by AD 2020-05-
12, as listed under the Related Service Information under 1 CFR part 51
section of this final rule.
For Model GVII-G500 airplanes, this AD also requires revising the
following sections of the existing AFM to include more restrictive
limitations and procedures.
``Wind Conditions'' of Section 01-02-10: ``Runway, Slope,
and Wind Conditions,'' of Chapter 01, ``LIMITATIONS.''
``Day and Night, Visual and Instrument Flight Rules'' of
Section 01-03-10: ``Types of Airplane Operations Permitted,'' of
Chapter 01, ``LIMITATIONS.''

``Approach Speed'' of Section 01-03-40: ``Airspeed
Limitations,'' of Chapter 01, ``LIMITATIONS.''
Section 01-22-10: ``Autothrottle,'' of Chapter 01,
``LIMITATIONS.''
``WARNING'' information preceding ``Approach/Landing
Airspeeds'' of Section 02-05-50: ``Landing,'' of Chapter 02, ``NORMAL
OPERATIONS.''
``Introduction'' and ``Example'' sections of Section 05-
11-10: ``Threshold Speeds'' of Chapter 05, ``PERFORMANCE.''
For Model GVII-G600 airplanes, this AD also requires adding or
replacing the following sections of the existing AFM to include more
restrictive limitations and procedures.
``Wind Conditions'' of Section 01-02-10: ``Runway, Slope,
and Wind Conditions,'' of Chapter 01, ``LIMITATIONS.''
``Day and Night, Visual and Instrument Flight Rules'' of
Section 01-03-10: ``Types of Airplane Operations Permitted,'' of
Chapter 01, ``LIMITATIONS.''
``Approach Speed'' of Section 01-03-40: ``Airspeed
Limitations,'' of Chapter 01, ``LIMITATIONS.''
Section 01-22-10: ``Autothrottle,'' of Chapter 01,
``LIMITATIONS.''
``WARNING'' information preceding ``Approach/Landing
Airspeeds'' of Section 02-05-50: ``Landing,'' of Chapter 02, ``NORMAL
OPERATIONS.''
``Introduction'' and ``Example'' sections of Section 05-
11-10: ``Threshold Speeds'' of Chapter 05, ``PERFORMANCE.''

Interim Action


The FAA considers this AD to be an interim action. The manufacturer
is developing a modification that will address the unsafe condition
identified in this AD. Once this modification is developed, approved,
and available, the FAA might consider additional rulemaking.

Justification for Immediate Adoption and Determination of the Effective
Date


Section 553(b)(3)(B) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5
U.S.C. 551 et seq.) authorizes agencies to dispense with notice and
comment procedures for rules when the agency, for ``good cause,'' finds
that those procedures are ``impracticable, unnecessary, or contrary to
the public interest.'' Under this section, an agency, upon finding good
cause, may issue a final rule without providing notice and seeking
comment prior to issuance. Further, section 553(d) of the APA
authorizes agencies to make rules effective in less than thirty days,
upon a finding of good cause.
An unsafe condition exists that requires the immediate adoption of
this AD without providing an opportunity for public comments prior to
adoption. The FAA has found that the risk to the flying public
justifies forgoing notice and comment prior to adoption of this rule
because inappropriate alpha limiter engagement during the landing flare
can limit pilot pitch authority during a critical phase of flight near
the ground and could result in a high rate of descent landing with
possible consequent loss of control of the airplane. Given the
significance of the risk presented by this unsafe condition, it must be
immediately addressed. Accordingly, notice and opportunity for prior
public comment are impracticable and contrary to the public interest
pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553(b)(3)(B).
In addition, the FAA finds that good cause exists pursuant to 5
U.S.C. 553(d) for making this amendment effective in less than 30 days,
for the same reasons the FAA found good cause to forgo notice and
comment.

Comments Invited

The FAA invites you to send any written data, views, or arguments
about this final rule. Send your comments to an address listed under
ADDRESSES. Include ``Docket No. FAA-2022-0511 and Project Identifier
AD-2022-00397-T'' at the beginning of your comments. The most helpful
comments reference a specific portion of the final rule, explain the
reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data. The FAA
will consider all comments received by the closing date and may amend
this final rule because of those comments.
Except for Confidential Business Information (CBI) as described in
the following paragraph, and other information as described in 14 CFR
11.35, the FAA will post all comments received, without change, to
https://www.regulations.gov, including any personal information you
provide. The agency will also post a report summarizing each
substantive verbal contact received about this final rule.

Confidential Business Information


CBI is commercial or financial information that is both customarily
and actually treated as private by its owner. Under the Freedom of
Information Act (FOIA) (5 U.S.C. 552), CBI is exempt from public
disclosure. If your comments responsive to this AD contain commercial
or financial information that is customarily treated as private, that
you actually treat as private, and that is relevant or responsive to
this AD, it is important that you clearly designate the submitted
comments as CBI. Please mark each page of your submission containing
CBI as ``PROPIN.'' The FAA will treat such marked submissions as
confidential under the FOIA, and they will not be placed in the public
docket of this AD. Submissions containing CBI should be sent to Sanford
Proveaux, Aerospace Engineer, Certificate Management and Safety
Oversight Section, FAA, Atlanta ACO Branch, 1701 Columbia Avenue,
College Park, GA 30337; phone: 404-474-5566; email:
Sanford.Proveaux@faa.gov. Any commentary that the FAA receives that is
not specifically designated as CBI will be placed in the public docket
for this rulemaking.

Regulatory Flexibility Act

The requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) do not
apply when an agency finds good cause pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553 to adopt
a rule without prior notice and comment. Because the FAA has determined
that it has good cause to adopt this rule without notice and comment,
RFA analysis is not required.

Costs of Compliance

The FAA estimates that this AD affects 120 airplanes of U.S.
registry. The FAA estimates the following costs to comply with this AD:

Estimated Costs

Action
Labor cost
Parts cost
Cost per product
Cost on U.S. operators
AFM revision 1 work-hour x $85 per hour = $85
$0
$85
$10,200

Authority for This Rulemaking

Title 49 of the United States Code specifies the FAA's authority to
issue rules on aviation safety. Subtitle I, section 106, describes the
authority of the FAA Administrator. Subtitle VII: Aviation Programs
describes in more detail the scope of the Agency's authority.
The FAA is issuing this rulemaking under the authority described in
Subtitle VII, Part A, Subpart III, Section 44701: General requirements.
Under that section, Congress charges the FAA with promoting safe flight
of civil aircraft in air commerce by prescribing regulations for
practices, methods, and procedures the Administrator finds necessary
for safety in air commerce. This regulation is within the scope of that
authority because it addresses an unsafe condition that is likely to
exist or develop on products identified in this rulemaking action.

Regulatory Findings

This AD will not have federalism implications under Executive Order
13132. This AD will not have a substantial direct effect on the States,
on the relationship between the national government and the States, or
on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various
levels of government.
For the reasons discussed above, I certify that this AD:
(1) Is not a ``significant regulatory action'' under Executive
Order 12866, and
(2) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska.

List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 39


Air transportation, Aircraft, Aviation safety, Incorporation by
reference, Safety.

The Amendment

Accordingly, under the authority delegated to me by the
Administrator, the FAA amends 14 CFR part 39 as follows:

PART 39--AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES


1. The authority citation for part 39 continues to read as follows:

Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701.

Sec. 39.13 [Amended]

2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by:

a. Removing Airworthiness Directive (AD) 2020-05-12, Amendment 39-19860
(85 FR 14562, March 13, 2022); and

b. Adding the following new AD: