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PROPOSED AD VARIOUS AIRPLANES, HELICOPTERS, AND ENGINES: Docket No. FAA-2022-0891; Project Identifier AD-2022-00585-A,E,R.
(a) COMMENTS DUE DATE

    The FAA must receive comments  on this airworthiness directive (AD) by
    November 4, 2022.

(b) AFFECTED ADS

    None.

(c) DEFINITIONS

(1) For  purposes  of  this  AD,  a "v-band coupling" means a spot-welded,
    multi-segment v-band coupling installed at the tailpipe to turbocharg-
    er exhaust housing flange.

(2) For purposes of this AD, "new" means zero hours time-in-service (TIS).

(d) APPLICABILITY

    This AD applies to all turbocharged, reciprocating engine-powered air-
    planes  and  helicopters  and  turbocharged,  reciprocating   engines,
    certificated in any category, with a spot-welded, multi-segment v-band
    coupling installed  at the  tailpipe to  turbocharger exhaust  housing
    flange, except for airplanes that are in compliance with an AD  listed
    in paragraphs (d)(1) through (10)  of this AD.  These v-band couplings
    are installed on, but not limited  to, the products listed in Table  1
    to paragraph (d) of this AD.

(1) AD 2018-06-11, Amendment 39-19231 (83 FR 13383, March 29, 2018).

(2) AD 2014-23-03, Amendment 39-18019 (79 FR 67340, November 13, 2014).

(3) AD 2013-10-04,  Amendment 39-17457  (78 FR 35110,  June 12, 2013; cor-
    rected September 5, 2013, 78 FR 54561).

(4) AD 2010-13-07,  Amendment 39-16338  (75 FR 35619,  June 23, 2010; cor-
    rected July 26, 2010, 75 FR 43397).

(5) AD 2004-23-17, Amendment 39-13872 (69 FR 67809, November 22, 2004).

(6) AD 2001-08-08, Amendment 39-12185 (66 FR 20192, April 20, 2001).

(7) AD 2000-11-04, Amendment 39-11752 (65 FR 34941, June 1, 2000).

(8) AD 2000-01-16, Amendment 39-11514 (65 FR 2844, January 19, 2000).

(9) AD 91-21-01 R1,  Amendment 39-9470  (61 FR 29003,  June 7, 1996;  cor-
    rected September 6, 1996, 61 FR 47051).

(10) AD 81-23-03 R2, Amendment 39-4491 (47 FR 51101, November 12, 1982).

    TABLE 1 TO PARAGRAPH (D)  APPLICABILITY INCLUDES, BUT IS NOT LIMITED 
                               TO, THE FOLLOWING AIRPLANES, HELICOPTERS,  
                               AND ENGINES WHEN TURBOCHARGED              
    ______________________________________________________________________
    TYPE CERTIFICATE HOLDER                         MODEL
    ______________________________________________________________________
    Aerostar Aircraft Corporation         PA-60-600 (Aerostar 600), PA-60-
                                          601 (Aerostar 601), PA-60-601P
                                          (Aerostar 601P), PA-60-602P
                                          (Aerostar 602P), and PA-60-700P
                                          (Aerostar 700P)

    B-N Group Ltd. (formerly Pilatus      BN-2, BN-2A, BN-2A-6, BN-2A-8,
    Britten-Norman Limited)               and BN-2A-9

    Cirrus Design Corporation             SR22, SR22T

    Commander Aircraft Corporation        112TC, 112TCA, and 114TC
    (formerly CPAC, Inc.; Commander
    Aircraft Company; Gulfstream
    Aerospace Corporation; Gulfstream
    American Corporation; and Rockwell
    International, Commander Aircraft
    Division)

    Continental Aerospace Technologies,   LTSIO-360-E, LTSIO-360-EB, LTSIO
    Inc. (formerly Continental Motors,    -360-KB, LTSIO-360-RB; TSIO-360-
    Inc., and Teledyne Continental        E, TSIO-360-EB, TSIO-360-F, TSIO
    Motors)                               -360-FB, TSIO-360-KB, TSIO-360-
                                          LB, TSIO-360-MB, TSIO-360-RB,
                                          TSIO-360-SB; TSIO520-BE, TSIO-
                                          520-L, TSIO-520-LB, TSIO520-T,
                                          TSIO-520-WB; TSIO-550-A, TSIO550
                                          -B, TSIO-550-C, TSIO-550-E, TSIO
                                          -550-G, TSIO-550-J, TSIO-550-K,
                                          TSIO550-N; TSIOF-550-D, TSIOF-
                                          550-J, IO520-B, IO-520-BA, IO-
                                          520-BB, IO-520-D, IO-550-B, IO-
                                          550-E, and IO-550-N

    Costruzioni Aeronautiche Tecnam       P2012 Traveller
    S.P.A.

    Daher Aerospace (formerly SOCATA      TB 21
    and SOCATA - Groupe
    AEROSPATIALE)

    Diamond Aircraft Industries Inc.      DA 40
    (formerly Diamond Aircraft
    Industries GmbH)

    The Enstrom Helicopter Corporation    F-28C, F-28C-2, F-28C-2R, F-28F,
                                          F-28FR, 280C, 280F, and 280FX

    Helio Aircraft LLC                    500

    Helio Alaska, Inc.                    H-295 (USAF U-10D) and H-395
                                          (USAF L-28A or U-10B)

    The King's Engineering Fellowship     4500-300 and 4500-300 Series II
    (formerly Evangel-Air)

    Lycoming Engines (formerly Textron    IO-540-AA1A5, IO-540-AG1A5, IO-
    Lycoming)                             540-S1A5, TIO-540-AE2A, TIO-540-
                                          AH1A, TIO-540-J2BD, TO-360-
                                          C1A6D, TO-360-E1A6D, LTO-360-
                                          A1A6D, LTO-360-E1A6D, and LTIO-
                                          540-J2BD

    Maule Aerospace Technology, Inc.      M-5-210TC
    (formerly Maule Aircraft
    Corporation)

    Merlyn Products, Inc.                 IO-540-MX1

    Mooney International Corporation      M20J, M20K, M20M, M20TN and M20V
    (formerly Mooney Aviation Company,
    Inc.; Mooney Airplane Company, Inc.;
    Mooney Aircraft Corporation; Aerostar
    Aircraft Corporation of Texas; and
    Mooney Aircraft Inc.)

    Piper Aircraft, Inc. (formerly The    PA-23, PA-23-160, PA-23-235, PA-
    New Piper Aircraft, Inc.)             23-250, PA-23-250 (Navy UO-1),
                                          PA-E23-250, PA24-250, PA-24-260,
                                          PA-24-400, PA-28-201T, PA-28R-
                                          201T, PA-28RT-201T, PA30, PA-31,
                                          PA-31-325, PA-31-350, PA31P, PA-
                                          31P-350, PA-32-260, PA-32R300,
                                          PA-32RT-300T, PA-32R-301(SP),
                                          PA32-301T, PA-32R-301T, PA-34-
                                          200, PA34-200T, PA-34-220T, PA-
                                          39, PA-44-180T, PA-46-310P, and
                                          PA-46-350P

    Revo, Incorporated (formerly          Lake Model LA-4, Lake Model LA-
    Global Amphibians, LLC; Consoli-      4A, Lake Model LA-4-200 and Lake
    dated Aeronautics, Inc.; Lake Air-    Model 250
    craft Corporation; and Colonial
    Aircraft Company)

    Scott's-Bell 47, Inc. (formerly       47G-3B, 47G-3B-1, 47G-3B-2, and
    Bell Helicopter Textron Inc.)         47G3B-2A

    Siam Hiller Holdings, Inc.            UH-12L and UH-12L4
    (formerly Rogerson Hiller Corpor-
    ation; Hiller Helicopters; Rogerson
    Aircraft Corporation; Hiller Avia-
    tion; Heli-Parts, Inc.; Fairchild
    Industries, Inc.; and Hiller Air-
    craft Corporation)

    SST FLUGTECHNIK GmbH (formerly        EA 400
    Extra Flugzeugproduktions- und
    Vertriebs- GmbH and Extra
    Flugzeugbau GmbH Flugplatz)

    Textron Aviation Inc. (formerly       35-33, 35-A33, 35-B33, 35-C33,
    Beechcraft Corporation, Hawker        35-C33A, E33, E33A, E33C, F33,
    Beechcraft Corporation, Raytheon      F33A, F33C, H35, J35, K35, M35,
    Aircraft Company, and Beech Air-      N35, P35, S35, V35, V35A, V35B,
    craft Corporation)                    36, A36, A36TC, B36TC, D55, E55,
                                          56TC (Turbo Baron), A56TC (Turbo
                                          Baron), 58, G58, 60 (Duke), A60
                                          (Duke), B60 (Duke), 95, 95-C55,
                                          B95, B95A, D95A, and E95

    Textron Aviation Inc. (formerly       185, 185A, 185B, 185C, 185D,
    Cessna Aircraft Company)              185E, A185E, A185F, A188, A188A,
                                          A188B, A188C, T182, T182T,
                                          TR182, T188C, 206, P206, P206A,
                                          P206B, P206C, P206D, P206E,
                                          T206H, TP206A, TP206B, TP206C,
                                          TP206D, TP206E, TU206A, TU206B,
                                          TU206C, TU206D, TU206E, TU206F,
                                          TU206G, U206, U206A, U206B,
                                          U206C, U206D, U206E, U206F,
                                          U206G, T207, T207A, 210, 210A,
                                          210B, 210C, 210-5 (205), 210-5A
                                          (205A), P210N, T210G, T210H,
                                          T210J, T210K, T210L, T210M,
                                          T210N, T240, T303, 310, 310B,
                                          310C, 310D, 310E (USAF U-3B),
                                          310F, 310G, 310H, 310I, 310J,
                                          T310P, T310Q, T310R, 320, 320A,
                                          320B, 320C, 320D, 320E, 320F,
                                          320-1, 321, 335, 340, 340A, LC40
                                          -550FG, LC41-550FG, LC42-550FG,
                                          FT337E, FT337F, FT337GP, FT337
                                          HP, P337H, T337B, T337C, T337D,
                                          T337E, T337F, T337G, T337H,
                                          T337H-SP, 401, 401A, 401B, 402,
                                          402A, 402B, 402C, 404, 411,
                                          411A, 414, 414A, 421, 421A,
                                          421B, 421C

    Triton Aerospace LLC (formerly        A500
    Triton America LLC; AAI Acquisition,
    Inc.; and Adam Aircraft)

    Twin Commander Aircraft LLC           500, 500A, 500B, 500S, 500U,
    (formerly Twin Commander Aircraft     560A, 560E, and 685
    Corporation; Gulfstream Aerospace
    Corporation; Gulfstream American
    Corporation; Rockwell-Standard &
    Associates; and Aero Design and
    Engineering Company, also known as
    Aero Commander Aircraft)

    Vulcanair S.p.A. (formerly Parten-    P.68B, P.68C-TC, and P.68TC
    avia Costruzioni Aeronautiche         "Observer"
    S.p.A.)
    ______________________________________________________________________

(e) SUBJECT

    Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC) Code 8100, Exhaust Turbine Sys-
    tem (Recip).

(f) UNSAFE CONDITION

    This AD was prompted  by multiple failures of spot-welded,  multi-seg-
    ment v-band couplings installed  at  the  tailpipe to turbocharger ex-
    haust housing flange. The FAA is issuing this AD to prevent failure of
    the spot-welded, multi-segment  exhaust tailpipe v-band  coupling. The
    unsafe condition, if  not addressed, could  lead to detachment  of the
    exhaust  tailpipe  from the  turbocharger  and allow  high-temperature
    exhaust gases to  enter the engine  compartment. This could  result in
    smoke  in the  cockpit, in-flight  fire, and  loss of  control of  the
    aircraft.

(g) COMPLIANCE

    Comply with this AD within the compliance times specified,  unless al-
    ready done.

(h) REVIEW OF THE MAINTENANCE RECORDS

    Within 50 hours TIS  after the effective date of this AD,  review  the
    aircraft  maintenance records  to determine  the number  of hours  TIS
    accumulated on each v-band coupling.

(i) V-BAND COUPLING LIFE LIMIT

(1) Within the compliance times  specified in paragraph (i)(1)(i)  or (ii)
    or (i)(2) of this AD,  remove the v-band coupling from service and in-
    stall a new v-band coupling.  Apply correct torque as necessary to the
    v-band coupling nut.

(i) If the v-band coupling  has accumulated  less than 500 hours TIS: Ini-
    tially remove the v-band coupling from service  before  it accumulates
    500 hours TIS or within 50 hours TIS  after the effective date of this
    AD, whichever occurs later.  Thereafter,  remove  the  v-band coupling
    from service before it accumulates 500 hours TIS.

(ii) If the v-band coupling  has accumulated 500 or more hours TIS  or  if
     the hours TIS of the v-band coupling cannot be determined:  Initially
     remove the v-band coupling from service within 50 hours TIS after the
     effective date of this AD.  Thereafter,  remove  the  v-band coupling
     from service before it accumulates 500 hours TIS.

(2) As an alternative to initially removing the v-band coupling from serv-
    ice as required by  paragraph (i)(1) of this  AD, you may perform  the
    inspections required by paragraphs (j)(1)  through (7) or (k) of  this
    AD. Do the initial inspections  at the time the v-band  coupling would
    have been  removed from  service and  thereafter at  intervals not  to
    exceed 6 months or 100 hours TIS, whichever occurs first, for a period
    not to exceed 2  years after the effective  date of this AD.  If the v
    -band coupling  fails to  meet any  inspection criteria  in paragraphs
    (j)(1) through (7) or (k) of this AD, it must be removed from  service
    before further flight.

Note 1 to paragraph (i): Instructions for installing a v-band coupling can
be found in Appendix B:  Best Practices Guide,  paragraph 3.1, of the "Ex-
haust System Turbocharger to Tailpipe V-band Coupling/ Clamp Working Group
Final Report," dated January 2018.

(j) INSPECTIONS WITHOUT REMOVAL OF THE V-BAND COUPLING

    At the next annual inspection after  the effective date of this AD  or
    within  the  next 12  months  after the  effective  date of  this  AD,
    whichever occurs first, and  repetitively thereafter at intervals  not
    to exceed 12 months, visually inspect the v-band coupling as  required
    by  paragraphs (j)(1)  through (7)  of this  AD.  Removing  the v-band
    coupling from service  and installing a  new v-band coupling  does not
    terminate the requirement to do these repetitive inspections.

(1) Inspect the v-band coupling and area  around  the  v-band coupling for
    exhaust stains, sooting, and discoloration. If any of those conditions
    are found,  remove the  coupling and,  instead of  the inspections  in
    paragraphs  (j)(2)  through (7)  of  this AD,  do  the inspections  in
    paragraph (k) of this AD.

(2) Inspect the v-band coupling outer band for cracks,  paying  particular
    attention to the spot weld areas. If there is a crack, before  further
    flight, remove the  v-band coupling from  service and install  a new v
    -band coupling.

(3) Inspect the v-band coupling  for  looseness  and for separation of the
    outer band from the v-retainer segments at all spot welds. If there is
    any  looseness  or separation  of  the outer  band  from any  retainer
    segment,  before  further  flight,  remove  the  v-band  coupling from
    service and install a new v-band coupling.

(4) Inspect the v-band coupling outer band for cupping, bowing, and crown-
    ing as depicted in  figure 1 to paragraph  (k)(1)(iii) of this AD.  If
    there  is any  cupping, bowing,  or crowning,  before further  flight,
    remove  the coupling  and, instead  of the  inspections in  paragraphs
    (j)(5) through (7) of this AD, do the inspections in paragraph (k)  of
    this AD.

(5) Inspect the area of the v-band coupling,  including  the  outer  band,
    opposite the t-bolt for damage and distortion. If there is any  damage
    or distortion, before further flight, remove the v-band coupling  from
    service and install a new v-band coupling.

(6) Using a mirror, inspect the v-band coupling to determine whether there
    is a space between the two v-retainer coupling segments next to the t-
    bolt.  If there is no space  between  the two v-retainer coupling seg-
    ments next  to the  t-bolt,  before further flight,  remove the v-band
    coupling from service and install a new v-band coupling.

(7) Determine whether  the v-band coupling nut  is  properly  torqued  and
    apply correct torque as necessary.

(k) INSPECTIONS WITH THE SPOT-WELDED,  MULTI - SEGMENT EXHAUST TAILPIPE V-
    BAND COUPLING REMOVED

(1) Remove the v-band coupling and do the inspections in paragraphs (k)(1)
    and (2) of this AD if required  by paragraph (j)(1) or (4) of this  AD
    or as an alternative to  the inspections required by paragraph  (j) of
    this AD. Removing  the v-band coupling  from service and  installing a
    new v-band coupling does not  terminate the requirement to repeat  the
    inspections in paragraph (j) or (k) of this AD.

(i) Using crocus cloth and mineral spirits or Stoddard solvent,  clean the
    outer band  of the  v-band coupling.  Pay particular  attention to the
    spot weld  areas on  the v-band  coupling. If  there is corrosion that
    cannot be removed by cleaning  or if there is pitting,  before further
    flight, remove the  v-band coupling from  service and install  a new v
    -band coupling.

(ii) Using a 10X magnifying glass,  visually  inspect  the  outer band for
     cracks, paying particular attention to the spot weld areas. If  there
     is a crack,  before further flight,  remove the v-band  coupling from
     service and install a new v-band coupling.

(iii) Visually inspect the flatness  of  the  outer band  using a straight
      edge. Lay the straight  edge across the width  of the outer band  as
      depicted in figure 1 to paragraph (k)(1)(iii) of this AD. If the gap
      between the  outer band  and the  straight edge  exceeds 0.062 inch,
      before further flight, remove  the v-band coupling from  service and
      install a new v-band coupling.

                        ILLUSTRATION (Figure 1)

(iv) With the t-bolt  in  the  12 o'clock position,  visually  inspect the
     attachment of the outer band to the v-retainer coupling segments  for
     gaps between the outer band and the v-retainer coupling segments from
     the 1  o'clock through  11 o'clock  positions. If  there are any gaps
     between the outer band  and the v-retainer coupling  segments, before
     further flight, remove the v-band coupling from service and install a
     new v-band coupling.

Note 2 to paragraph (k)(1)(iv): You may use backlighting to see gaps.

(v) Visually inspect the bend radii of the v-retainer  coupling  segments,
    throughout the length of the segment, as depicted in figure 1 to para-
    graph (k)(1)(iii) of this AD, for cracks. If there are any cracks, be-
    fore further flight,  remove the v-band coupling  from service and in-
    stall a new v-band coupling.

(vi) Visually inspect the outer band  opposite the t-bolt for damage (dis-
     tortion, creases, bulging,  or cracks)  caused by excessive spreading
     of the coupling during installation or removal.  If there is any dam-
     age,  before further flight,  remove the v-band coupling from service
     and install a new v-band coupling.

(2) If the v-band coupling passes all of the inspections in paragraphs (k)
    (1)(i) through (vi) of this AD, it may be re-installed.

(i) Apply correct torque as necessary to the v-band coupling nut.

(ii) Inspect the v-band coupling  to  determine whether there is space be-
     tween the two v-retainer coupling segments  next  to  the  t-bolt. If
     there is no space between  the two v-retainer coupling segments  next
     to the t-bolt, before further flight, remove the v-band coupling from
     service and install a new v-band coupling.

(l) INSTALLATION PROHIBITIONS

(1) From the effective date of this AD until two years after the effective
    date of this AD, do not install a v-band coupling that has accumulated
    more than zero hours TIS on any turbocharged airplane, helicopter,  or
    engine, unless it has passed all inspections required by paragraph (j)
    or (k) of this AD.

(2) As of two years after the effective date of this AD,  do not install a
    v-band coupling  that has accumulated more than zero and less than 500
    hours TIS on any turbocharged airplane, helicopter, or engine,  unless
    it has passed all inspections required by paragraph (j) or (k) of this
    AD.

(3) As of two years after the effective date of this AD,  do not install a
    v-band coupling that has accumulated 500  or  more  hours  TIS  on any
    turbocharged airplane, helicopter, or engine.

(m) ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF COMPLIANCE (AMOCS)

(1) The Manager,  Operational  Safety  Branch,  FAA,  has the authority to
    approve AMOCs for this AD, if requested using the procedures found  in
    14 CFR 39.19. In  accordance with 14 CFR  39.19, send your request  to
    your principal inspector or local Flight Standards District Office, as
    appropriate. If  sending information  directly to  the manager  of the
    Operational Safety  Office, send  it to  the attention  of the  person
    identified in paragraph (n)(1) of this AD and email to: AMOC@faa.gov.

(2) Before using any approved AMOC,  notify your appropriate principal in-
    spector,  or  lacking a principal inspector,  the manager of the local
    flight standards district office/certificate holding district office.

(n) RELATED INFORMATION

(1) For more information about this AD,  contact  Thomas Teplik,  Aviation
    Safety Engineer, Wichita ACO Branch FAA, 1801 S Airport Road, Wichita,
    KS 67209; phone (316) 946-4196; email thomas.teplik@faa.gov or Wichita
    -COS@faa.gov.

(2) The "Exhaust System Turbocharger  to Tailpipe V-band  Coupling / Clamp
    Working Group Final Report,"  dated January 2018,  may be found in the
    AD docket at www.regulations.gov by searching for  and locating Docket
    No. FAA-2022-0891.

(o) MATERIAL INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

    None.

Issued on July 20, 2022.  Christina Underwood, Acting Director, Compliance
& Airworthiness Division, Aircraft Certification Service.

DATES: The FAA must receive comments  on this proposed AD  by  November 4,
2022.
PREAMBLE 

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Federal Aviation Administration

14 CFR Part 39

[Docket No. FAA-2022-0891; Project Identifier AD-2022-00585-A,E,R]
RIN 2120-AA64

Airworthiness Directives; Various Airplanes, Helicopters, and
Engines

AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT.

ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM).

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD)
for turbocharged, reciprocating engine-powered airplanes and
helicopters and turbocharged, reciprocating engines with a certain v-
band coupling installed. This proposed AD was prompted by multiple
failures of spot-welded, multi-segment v-band couplings at the tailpipe
to the turbocharger exhaust housing flange (also referred to as ``spot-
welded, multi-segment exhaust tailpipe v-band coupling''). This
proposed AD would establish a life limit for the spot-welded, multi-
segment exhaust tailpipe v-band coupling and require repetitively
inspecting the spot-welded, multi-segment exhaust tailpipe v-band
coupling. The FAA is proposing this AD to address the unsafe condition
on these products.

DATES: The FAA must receive comments on this proposed AD by November 4,
2022.

ADDRESSES: You may send comments, using the procedures found in 14 CFR
11.43 and 11.45, by any of the following methods:
Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to www.regulations.gov.
Follow the instructions for submitting comments.
Fax: (202) 493-2251.
Mail: U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket
Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New
Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, DC 20590.
Hand Delivery: Deliver to Mail address above between 9
a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays.

Examining the AD Docket

You may examine the AD docket at www.regulations.gov by searching
for and locating Docket No. FAA-2022-0891; or in person at Docket
Operations between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except
Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this NPRM, any comments
received, and other information. The street address for Docket
Operations is listed above.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Thomas Teplik, Aviation Safety
Engineer, Wichita ACO Branch, FAA, 1801 S. Airport Road, Wichita, KS
67209; phone: (316) 946-4196; email: thomas.teplik@faa.gov or Wichita-COS@
faa.gov.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Comments Invited

The FAA invites you to send any written relevant data, views, or
arguments about this proposal. Send your comments to an address listed
under ADDRESSES. Include ``Docket No. FAA-2022-0891; Project Identifier
AD-2022-00585-A,E,R'' at the beginning of your comments. The most
helpful comments reference a specific portion of the proposal, explain
the reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data. The
FAA will consider all comments received by the closing date and may
amend this proposal because of those comments.
Except for Confidential Business Information (CBI) as described in
the following paragraph, and other information as described in 14 CFR
11.35, the FAA will post all comments received, without change, to
www.regulations.gov, including any personal information you provide.
The agency will also post a report summarizing each substantive verbal
contact received about this NPRM.

Confidential Business Information

CBI is commercial or financial information that is both customarily
and actually treated as private by its owner. Under the Freedom of
Information Act (FOIA) (5 U.S.C. 552), CBI is exempt from public
disclosure. If your comments responsive to this NPRM contain commercial
or financial information that is customarily treated as private, that
you actually treat as private, and that is relevant or responsive to
this NPRM, it is important that you clearly designate the submitted
comments as CBI. Please mark each page of your submission containing
CBI as ``PROPIN.'' The FAA will treat such marked submissions as
confidential under the FOIA, and they will not be placed in the public
docket of this NPRM. Submissions containing CBI should be sent Thomas
Teplik, Aviation Safety Engineer, Wichita ACO Branch, FAA, 1801 S.
Airport Road, Wichita, KS 67209. Any commentary that the FAA receives
which is not specifically designated as CBI will be placed in the
public docket for this rulemaking.

Background

Since the mid-1970s, failures of v-band couplings that attach the
exhaust tailpipe to the turbocharger exhaust outlet have resulted in a
significant number of incidents and accidents (fatal and non-fatal) on
both airplanes and helicopters. Since 1974, National Transportation
Safety Board (NTSB) accident and incident investigations have led to
the issuance of 7 NTSB Safety Recommendations concerning exhaust
systems and/or exhaust v-band couplings; 20 FAA ADs to address the
unsafe condition with exhaust systems and/or exhaust v-band couplings;
and 10 FAA Special Airworthiness Information Bulletins (SAIBs).
Industry has also taken action to raise awareness of the concerns
associated with v-band coupling failures.

NTSB Safety Recommendations Affecting V-Band Couplings
------------------------------------------------------------------------
NTSB Safety recommendation Description Make/model
------------------------------------------------------------------------
A-90-166...................... Exhaust system... Piper PA-32RT-300T,
PA-32R-301T.
A-90-165...................... Exhaust system... Piper PA-32RT-300T,
PA-32R-301T.
A-90-164...................... Exhaust system... Piper PA-32RT-300T,
PA-32R-301T.
A-88-151...................... Exhaust system... Piper PA-32RT-300T.
A-88-150...................... Exhaust system... Piper PA-32RT-300T.
A-88-147...................... Exhaust system... Piper PA-32RT-300T.
A-74-099...................... V-band engine Textron (Cessna)
exhaust clamp turbocharged 300/400
failures. series.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

You may examine these NTSB Safety Recommendations in the AD docket
at www.regulations.gov by searching for and locating Docket No. FAA-
2022-0891.

ADs on V-Band Couplings
------------------------------------------------------------------------
AD
Make/model

------------------------------------------------------------------------
AD 2018-06-11, Amendment 39- Textron Aviation Inc. Model A36TC and
19231 (83 FR 13383, March B36TC airplanes, all serial numbers,
29, 2018). equipped with a turbocharged engine;
Textron Aviation Inc. Model S35, V35,
V35A, and V35B airplanes, all serial
numbers, equipped with the Continental
TSIO-520-D engine with AiResearch
turbocharger during manufacture; and
Textron Aviation Inc. Model S35, V35,
V35A, and V35B airplanes, all serial
numbers, equipped with StandardAero
Supplemental Type Certificate (STC)
SA1035WE.
AD 2014-23-03, Amendment 39- Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model PA-31P
18019 (79 FR 67340, November airplanes, serial numbers 31P-1 through
13, 2014). 31P-80 and 31P-7300110 through 31P-
7730012.
AD 2013-10-04, Amendment 39- Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model PA-31, PA-31-
17457 (78 FR 35110, June 12, 325, and PA-31-350 airplanes, all serial
2013; corrected September 5, numbers.
2013, 78 FR 54561).
AD 2010-13-07, Amendment 39- Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model PA-32R-301T
16338 (75 FR 35619, June 23, airplanes, serial numbers 3257001
2010; corrected July 26, through 3257311; and Model PA-46-350P
2010, 75 FR 43397). airplanes, serial numbers 4622001
through 4622200 and 4636001 through
4636341.
AD 2004-23-17, Amendment 39- Mooney Airplane Company Inc. (currently
13872 (69 FR 67809, November Mooney International Corporation) Model
22, 2004). M20M airplanes, serial numbers 27-0001
through 27-0321.
AD 2001-08-08, Amendment 39- Raytheon Aircraft Company (previously The
12185 (66 FR 20192, April Beech Aircraft Corporation; currently
20, 2001). Textron Aviation Inc.) Model 35-C33A,
E33A, E33C, F33A, F33C, S35, V35, V35A,
V35B, 36, and A36 airplanes, all serial
numbers, with Tornado Alley Turbo, Inc.
STC SA5223NM and STC SE5222NM
incorporated and with a Teledyne
Continental engine equipped with a
turbonormalizing system.
AD 2000-11-04, Amendment 39- Commander Aircraft Company Model 114TC
11752 (65 FR 34941, June 1, airplanes, serial numbers 20001 through
2000). 20027.
AD 2000-01-16, Amendment 39- Cessna Aircraft Company (currently
11514 (65 FR 2844, January Textron Aviation Inc.) Model T310P,
19, 2000). T310Q, T310R, 320, 320A, 320B, 320C,
320D, 320E, 320F, 320-1, 335, 340, 340A,
321 (Navy OE-2), 401, 401A, 401B, 402,
402A, 402B, 402C, 404, 411, 411A, 414,
414A, 421, 421A, 421B, and 421C
airplanes, all serial numbers.
AD 91-21-01 R1, Amendment 39- Textron Lycoming Model TIO-540-S1AD
9470 (61 FR 29003, June 7, reciprocating engines installed on, but
1996; corrected September 6, not limited to, Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-
1996, 61 FR 47051). 32 series airplanes.
AD 81-23-03 R2, Amendment 39- Cessna (currently Textron Aviation Inc.)
4491 (47 FR 51101, November Model P210N airplanes, serial numbers
12, 1982). P21000001 through P21000811
------------------------------------------------------------------------

These ADs require v-band coupling replacements (life limit) and/or
repetitive inspections, or changing the type design of the v-band
coupling. This proposed AD would not apply to airplanes that have
complied with one of these ADs. You may examine these ADs in the AD
docket at www.regulations.gov by searching for and locating Docket No.
FAA-2022-0891.

SAIBs on V-Band Couplings
------------------------------------------------------------------------
SAIB Subject
------------------------------------------------------------------------
CE-18-21.......................... Exhaust Turbochargers; Announce the
availability of the ``Best
Practices Guide for Maintaining
Exhaust System Turbocharger to
Tailpipe V-band Couplings/Clamps''.
CE-18-07.......................... Exhaust Turbocharger; V-band
Couplings Used in Engine Exhaust
Systems on Turbocharged
Reciprocating Engine Powered
Aircraft.
CE-13-45.......................... Engine Exhaust; Tailpipe V-band
Couplings [for turbocharged,
reciprocating engine-powered
airplanes].
CE-13-07R1........................ Engine Exhaust; Tailpipe V-band
Couplings [for Cessna Aircraft
Company (currently Textron Aviation
Inc.) Model T206H airplanes].
CE-13-07.......................... Engine Exhaust; Tailpipe V-band
Couplings [for Cessna Aircraft
Company (currently Textron Aviation
Inc.) Model T206H airplanes].
CE-10-33R1........................ Engine Exhaust [for reciprocating
engine-powered airplanes].
CE-10-33.......................... Engine Exhaust [for reciprocating
engine-powered airplanes].
CE-09-11.......................... Turbocharged Engines [for
turbocharged engine-powered
airplanes].
CE-05-13.......................... Alternative method of compliance
(AMOC) to AD 91-03-15, Amendment 39-
6870 (56 FR 3025, January 28, 1991)
for Mooney Aircraft Corporation
Model M20M airplanes.
CE-04-22.......................... Exhaust System Components for
reciprocating engine-powered
airplanes.
CE-03-46.......................... Mooney Model M20M airplanes with
turbocharged engines using v-band
clamps
------------------------------------------------------------------------

You may examine these SAIBs in the AD docket at www.regulations.gov
by searching for and locating Docket No. FAA-2022-0891.
In spite of these efforts, failures continue to occur and the
number of significant safety events continues to increase. As a result,
the General Aviation Joint Steering Committee (GA-JSC), which is
comprised of both the FAA and industry, developed a working group to
study v-band coupling failures associated with turbocharged
reciprocating engine-powered aircraft and develop recommended
corrective actions. This v-band coupling working group was comprised of
aviation industry manufacturers, type/user groups, and government
entities. The working group was tasked to examine the turbocharger to
tailpipe interface and develop recommendations to enhance the safety of
the fleet.
The working group recommended mandatory corrective actions that are
tailored to each specific coupling type (spot-welded, riveted, or
single piece), thereby minimizing the impact to owner/operators. The
working group recommended a mandatory coupling replacement time (life
limit) and annual inspection. The working group also recommended non-
mandatory actions to aid and educate maintenance personnel in
appropriate v-band coupling removal, installation, and inspection
practices. Finally, the working group recommended actions for new
designs, which incorporate lessons learned from review of the in-
service fleet. For new designs incorporating a V-band coupling
immediately downstream of the turbocharger exhaust discharge, the
working group recommended that a replacement interval (500 hours for
spot-welded and 2,000 hours for riveted and single-piece) be
incorporated in the Airworthiness Limitations sections of the
maintenance manual.
In January 2018, the working group published a final report titled
``Exhaust System Turbocharger to Tailpipe V-band Coupling/Clamp Working
Group Final Report'' (final report). Appendix B of the final report
contains the Best Practices Guide. The final report may be found in the
AD docket at www.regulations.gov by searching for and locating Docket
No. FAA-2022-0891.
The final report concluded that the common denominator in the
incidents and accidents reviewed is the spot-welded, multi-segment
exhaust tailpipe v-band coupling (see Figure A). These couplings come
in either two or three segment varieties. The segments are the number
of v-retainer segments, which are attached to the outer band via spot
welds. Although multi-segment exhaust tailpipe couplings can also be
riveted, the riveted couplings do not create an unsafe condition.

ILLUSTRATION (Figure A)

The majority of the events studied by the working group indicated
fatigue failure of spot-welded, multi-segment exhaust tailpipe v-band
couplings as a result of stress corrosion cracking that originated at
or near a spot weld. This is the same unsafe condition identified in
the other v-band coupling AD actions previously referenced. The data
studied by the working group contained evidence of pre-existing
cracking of the couplings, known embrittlement at the spot weld
locations simply due to that manufacturing method, and outer band
cupping on the multi-segment couplings (which is the result of age,
over-use, and potential over-torqueing). The working group also found
that many of the couplings had safety wire across the bolt end. The
safety wire could be helpful if there was a bolt or nut failure
(extremely rare events) or the nut was missing. However, the safety
wire was of no value when the failure was transverse band cracking and
total separation at the spot weld. The data studied by the working
group indicated many accidents were due to v-band couplings that were
of the multi-segment, spot-welded design, when used in a specific
location (the tailpipe to the turbocharger exhaust housing flange on
turbocharged reciprocating engine-powered aircraft).
After the working group published the final report, the FAA issued
SAIB CE-18-21, dated July 13, 2018. This SAIB announced the
availability of the Best Practices Guide from the final report and
recommended the public apply the best practices in the maintenance of
turbocharged reciprocating engine powered aircraft. The FAA also
assessed the recommendations contained in the final report and
determined an unsafe condition exists in turbocharged reciprocating
engine-powered aircraft with a spot-welded, multi-segment v-band
coupling installed. Because these v-band couplings are widely used by
many design approval holders on various models (engines and aircraft),
several Aircraft Certification Office Branches were involved in the
decision to propose a single AD. The FAA also determined that the
corrective actions recommended in the final report were appropriate to
address this unsafe condition.
This condition, if not addressed, could lead to failure of the
spot-welded, multi-segment exhaust tailpipe v-band coupling, leading to
detachment of the exhaust tailpipe from the turbocharger and allowing
high-temperature exhaust gases to enter the engine compartment. This
could result in smoke in the cockpit, in-flight fire, and loss of
control of the aircraft.

FAA's Determination

The FAA is issuing this NPRM after determining that the unsafe
condition described previously is likely to exist or develop on other
products of the same type design.

Proposed AD Requirements in This NPRM

This proposed AD would apply to all reciprocating turbocharged
airplanes, helicopters, and reciprocating engines that have a spot-
welded, multi-segment v-band coupling installed at the tailpipe to the
turbocharger exhaust housing flange. The proposed AD would apply
regardless of whether the turbocharger is installed as part of the type
certificate or under an STC, parts manufacture approval, or field
approval. The proposed AD would not apply to airplanes that have
complied with certain ADs listed in paragraph (d) of the proposed AD.
This proposed AD would require the following actions:
Repetitively inspecting the spot-welded, multi-segment
exhaust tailpipe v-band couplings annually, regardless of the hours
time-in-service (TIS) accumulated on the v-band coupling; and
Establishing a life limit for the spot-welded, multi-
segment exhaust tailpipe v-band couplings by removing them from service
every 500 hours TIS.
As an alternative for the first time the spot-welded, multi-segment
exhaust tailpipe v-band coupling must be removed from service due to
the 500 hour life limit, this proposed AD would allow doing the
repetitive inspections every 6 months or 100 hours TIS, whichever
occurs first, for a period of 2 years, as long as the v-band coupling
continues to pass all of the inspections.
Replacing a spot-welded, multi-segment exhaust tailpipe v-band
coupling with a v-band of a different part number or type (riveted or
single piece) would not be permitted, unless previously FAA-approved as
part of the aircraft or engine type certificate, an STC, or an AMOC.

Costs of Compliance

The FAA estimates that this AD, if adopted as proposed, could
affect up to 41,058 airplanes, helicopters, and engines (products of
U.S. registry). The FAA has no way of determining the number of these
products that could have an affected spot-welded, multi-segment v-band
coupling installed. The FAA's estimated cost on U.S. operators reflects
the maximum possible cost based on the 41,058 products of U.S.
registry. Based on this, the FAA estimates the following costs to
comply with this proposed AD:

Estimated Costs

Action Labor cost Parts cost Cost per product Number of U.S. products Cost on U.S. operators
Aircraft records review 0.5 work hour x $85 = $42.50 N/A $42.50 41,058 $1,744,965
Removal of the coupling from service and replacement (single-engine aircraft) 2 work-hours x $85 per hour = $170 $400 $570 31,248 $17,811,360
Removal of the couplings from service and replacement (twin-engine aircraft) 4 work-hours x $85 per hour = $340 800 $1,140 9,810 $11,183,400
Inspection of the coupling without removal (single-engine aircraft) 0.5 work-hour x $85 per hour = $42.50 N/A $42.50 per inspection cycle 31,248 $1,328,040 per inspection cycle
Inspection of the couplings without removal (twin-engine aircraft) 1 work-hour x $85 per hour = $85 N/A $85 per inspection cycle 9,810 $833,850 per inspection cycle

On Condition Costs

Action
Labor cost
Parts cost
Cost per product
Inspection of the coupling, including removal and reinstallation (single-engine aircraft) 1.5 work-hours x $85 per hour = $127.50
N/A
$127.50
Inspection of the couplings, including removal and reinstallation (twin-engine aircraft) 3 work-hours x $85 per hour = $255
N/A
255

This proposed AD would provide operators the option of performing
an inspection with the coupling removed from the aircraft instead of an
inspection of the coupling without removing it from the aircraft. In
some cases, an inspection with the coupling removed may be required.
A coupling may need to be removed from service before it reaches
its 500-hour TIS life limit if it does not meet all of the inspection
criteria at each inspection. The FAA has no way of determining the
number of products that may need to remove the coupling from service
before reaching its 500-hour TIS life limit.

Authority for This Rulemaking

Title 49 of the United States Code specifies the FAA's authority to
issue rules on aviation safety. Subtitle I, section 106, describes the
authority of the FAA Administrator. Subtitle VII: Aviation Programs,
describes in more detail the scope of the Agency's authority.
The FAA is issuing this rulemaking under the authority described in
Subtitle VII, Part A, Subpart III, Section 44701: General requirements.
Under that section, Congress charges the FAA with promoting safe flight
of civil aircraft in air commerce by prescribing regulations for
practices, methods, and procedures the Administrator finds necessary
for safety in air commerce. This regulation is within the scope of that
authority because it addresses an unsafe condition that is likely to
exist or develop on products identified in this rulemaking action.

Regulatory Findings

The FAA determined that this proposed AD would not have federalism
implications under Executive Order 13132. This proposed AD would not
have a substantial direct effect on the States, on the relationship
between the national government and the States, or on the distribution
of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government.
For the reasons discussed above, I certify this proposed
regulation:
(1) Is not a ``significant regulatory action'' under Executive
Order 12866,
(2) Would not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska, and
(3) Would not have a significant economic impact, positive or
negative, on a substantial number of small entities under the criteria
of the Regulatory Flexibility Act.

List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 39

Air transportation, Aircraft, Aviation safety, Incorporation by
reference, Safety.

The Proposed Amendment

Accordingly, under the authority delegated to me by the
Administrator, the FAA proposes to amend 14 CFR part 39 as follows:

PART 39--AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES

1. The authority citation for part 39 continues to read as follows:

Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701.

Sec. 39.13 [Amended]

2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new
airworthiness directive: